# Circular Reasoning

## The Flawed Reasoning of Circular Reasoning Explained

Have you ever been convinced of something simply because it was stated? This type of reasoning, known as circular reasoning, is more common than you may think. Although it may seem convincing, it is actually a logical fallacy that can mislead writers and thinkers.

### Understanding Circular Reasoning

Circular reasoning is a type of flawed logic that occurs when an argument is used to prove itself. This fallacy is often used as a form of justification, but it is ultimately unreasonable and illogical.

In formal logic, circular reasoning is considered an informal fallacy, meaning the flaw lies elsewhere rather than in the argument's structure.

This type of reasoning creates a circular argument where the conclusion is essentially the same as the initial premise, demonstrating a lack of sound logical support.

### Example of Circular Reasoning

For instance, someone may declare that a movie is fantastic because it is an '80s movie. When questioned why '80s movies are considered good, they simply state that it is because the movie in question is from the 1980s and is good. This type of reasoning ultimately leads back to the initial premise, forming a circular argument.

While in this example it is easy to identify the circular reasoning, it can be more challenging to detect when the circle is larger and more complex, such as defending the greatness of a beloved sports team.

### The Problem with Circular Reasoning

But why is circular reasoning such a concern? After all, if something is great, shouldn't it be able to justify its own greatness?

The problem with circular reasoning lies in its lack of validation. Validation refers to the use of evidence to support the truthfulness of a claim. For an argument to be validated, it must have support from another source.

In circular reasoning, the argument is essentially attempting to validate itself, which is illogical and ultimately results in a flawed argument. If an argument is not validated, it cannot be proven, and if it cannot be proven using logical reasoning, then it is considered illogical.

### Distinguishing Between Circular Reasoning and Cycles

It is important to note that circular reasoning is not the same as a cycle. For example, rain can become clouds and then rain again, demonstrating a cycle involving state changes. Rain and clouds are interdependent components that create a cycle, but this is not the same as circular reasoning because it involves two separate elements, not one.

### Examples and Quotes of Circular Reasoning

Circular reasoning can take various forms and be more complicated than just a simple "because A is A" argument. For instance, someone may argue that a person is a pyromaniac because they collect lighters. However, merely collecting lighters does not necessarily prove that someone is a pyromaniac.

Although this type of reasoning may be used humorously, it is essential to remember that circular arguments, regardless of their humor, should not be considered valid proofs. Humor is a powerful tool, but it does not equate to logical reasoning.

While comedians may use circular reasoning to make a point or joke, it is ultimately the logical argument that should be taken seriously, not the humor surrounding it.

## Circular Reasoning: How It Can Mislead and How to Avoid It

Circular reasoning is a logical fallacy where the arguer attempts to use their conclusion as evidence for their argument. This type of reasoning is misleading and potentially harmful, as it can lead to false beliefs and actions. Let's take a closer look at what circular reasoning is and how to avoid it.

### Identifying Circular Reasoning

When someone uses circular reasoning, they may try to distract from their flawed argument by using vague or ambiguous language to describe their point. For example, instead of providing concrete evidence, they may use phrases like "fire problem" or "real obsession" to describe a person's behavior. They may also use words like "probably" to try to weaken their conclusion, when in reality, it remains the same.

To uncover circular reasoning, it is important to cut through the vague language and identify the core of the argument. This can help expose the flaws and possibly even educate the person using it.

## The Pitfalls of Circular Reasoning

Circular reasoning can lead to false beliefs and actions due to its self-validated nature. This tactic relies on using flawed arguments as proof of a point, creating a dangerous cycle.

## How It Happens

Let's examine a real-life example of circular reasoning. Someone may claim that the Reptilioids, a specific race of aliens, are the smartest in the universe. When asked for evidence, they may respond with vague statements like "They have accomplished so much" or "Their ships travel at the speed of light." But when pressed for specific comparisons, they may simply state "They are just plain smarter" and justify it with words like "objective."

This argument is flawed because it relies on subjective language and vague comparisons to prove a subjective statement. It also ignores the fact that the term "better" is subjective and cannot be applied broadly to an entire race or group.

## Avoiding the Trap

If you find yourself using circular reasoning, here are some tips to strengthen your argument.

• Provide specific and concrete evidence to support your claims.
• Avoid using subjective language and vague comparisons.
• Listen and be open to a dialogue, don't dominate the conversation.

In order to make a strong argument, it is crucial to support claims with evidence from reputable sources. Trying to justify a claim with circular reasoning only serves to weaken the argument and can lead to false beliefs.

To sum it up, circular reasoning is a flawed tactic that can be misleading and dangerous. By being mindful of its pitfalls and avoiding it in our own arguments, we can promote critical thinking and strengthen our beliefs with solid evidence. Always remember to provide specific evidence when making a claim.

The argument that energy drinks should be regulated in the US due to potential harm to certain consumers is more valid than a blanket statement that all energy drinks have excessive caffeine. The marketing of energy drinks, which is not closely regulated by the US government, often promotes unrealistic and potentially harmful beliefs about the effects of caffeine, especially for young people and those with heart issues. Therefore, it is essential for the US government to regulate these advertisements in the same way as other problematic products like alcohol.To build a strong argument, it is important to be specific and provide supporting evidence. Some other terms for circular reasoning include "circulus in probando" in Latin and "begging the question" in English. This fallacy occurs when an arguer assumes the argument is true in order to prove a conclusion, regardless of any legitimate evidence.For example, saying "Hercules is the strongest because his strength is unbeatable" begs the question, "Is his strength truly unbeatable?" The arguer simply assumes the answer is yes, without any solid justification.Key points to remember about circular reasoning:- It is a logical fallacy that uses an argument to justify itself.- Circular arguments lack evidence and cannot be logically proven.- Just because circular reasoning is used in a humorous or obvious way does not make it valid.- It can be dangerous when used to justify actions.- To avoid circular reasoning, use credible evidence and make a specific claim, such as a well-supported thesis statement.What is circular reasoning?Circular reasoning is when an argument uses itself to validate its own conclusion.Is circular reasoning considered a formal fallacy?No, it is an informal fallacy.How can you identify circular reasoning?By examining the core of the argument and determining if it relies on itself for justification.What distinguishes begging the question from circular reasoning?

## Understanding the Informal Fallacy of Begging the Question

Have you ever come across an argument where the conclusion seems to be assumed right from the beginning? This is known as begging the question, a type of fallacy in which the arguer assumes their argument to be true in order to prove their conclusion. But what exactly is this fallacy, and how does it differ from circular reasoning?

What is Begging the Question?

Begging the question is a type of logical fallacy where the premises of an argument assume the truth of the conclusion without any additional evidence or reasoning. In other words, it is a circular argument that relies on the assumption of the very thing that is being argued for.

This type of reasoning can often be seen as a way to avoid providing sufficient evidence or logical support for one's argument. By assuming the truth of the conclusion, the arguer can avoid having to present a solid case for their argument.

Is it the Same as Circular Reasoning?

While begging the question and circular reasoning are related, they are not exactly the same. Circular reasoning is a broader term that encompasses any type of argument where the conclusion is assumed to be true without additional support. This can include circular arguments that are more complex and subtle than simply assuming the conclusion.

On the other hand, begging the question specifically refers to the use of circular reasoning to prove a conclusion. In this sense, it is a more specific form of circular reasoning that can be easily identified in an argument.

Identifying Begging the Question

Begging the question can often be identified by looking for arguments that assume the truth of the conclusion without providing any evidence or reasoning to back it up. These arguments can also be characterized by circular language or circular definitions, where the conclusion is embedded within the premises.

It is important to be able to identify this fallacy in order to avoid being misled by unconvincing arguments. By understanding the concept of begging the question, you can better evaluate the strength of an argument and make informed decisions.

In Conclusion

Begging the question is a type of informal fallacy that involves assuming the truth of the conclusion in order to prove it. While it is often used as a way to avoid providing sufficient evidence, it can also be identified as a common error in reasoning. By understanding the difference between begging the question and circular reasoning, you can improve your ability to evaluate arguments and avoid being misled.