# Longitudinal and Transverse Waves

Waves are like ripples that move through space and time. They don't always need a material substance to travel through, like electromagnetic waves. Some waves, like ocean waves, aren't perfectly timed and spaced, while others, like throwing a rock in a lake, have almost exactly the same spacing between them. Waves can also move without displacing any matter, like vibrations on a string. There are certain characteristics of periodic waves, like wavelength (the length of the repeated pattern), frequency (the number of patterns completed per unit of time), amplitude (the length of the displacement caused by the wave), period (the time it takes for a wave to complete a wavelength), and phase (a measure of the state of oscillation of a point). Waves can be transverse, longitudinal, or a combination of both.

See the following images of a periodic and a non-periodic wave:

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## What are longitudinal and transverse waves?

We are now going to discuss the main characteristics of longitudinal and transverse waves.

### Transverse waves

Transverse waves move in a direction perpendicular to the displacement they cause. Light is a famous example of this type of wave. Wavelength determines the energy of a transverse wave, like in light radiation where it corresponds to colour. Longer wavelengths, like those used in radios, correspond to radio radiation. Shorter wavelengths, like microwaves, correspond to other types of radiation.

### Longitudinal waves

Longitudinal waves, on the other hand, are characterised by the fact that the displacement they generate is in the same direction as their movement. We may think of the movement of a spring that has been stretched and released. The key aspect here is that the direction is much more restricted and that the movement generates changes in density (provided there is a material medium) since some regions will be either more compressed or more stretched. See the following figure for a visual representation of a longitudinal wave:

## Examples of longitudinal and transverse waves

Sound and light waves are good examples of longitudinal and transverse waves respectively. Earthquakes generate waves that propagate through solid mediums and cause permanent displacement. Primary waves are longitudinal and can travel through any material, while secondary waves are transverse and can only move through solid materials. Other examples of transverse waves include guitar string vibrations and ultrasound waves. Longitudinal waves are found in tsunami waves and sound waves. Waves can have both longitudinal and transverse components.

## Longitudinal and Transverse Waves

What is the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves?

Longitudinal waves are waves whose displacement occurs in the direction in which the wave is also moving. In transverse waves, the displacement occurs in a direction perpendicular to the direction of movement.

How are longitudinal and transverse waves similar?

They are both types of waves, so they share characteristics, such as amplitude, period, frequency, wavelength, etc.

What are longitudinal and transverse waves?

Longitudinal and transverse waves are two types of waves and thus disturbances that propagate through time and space. The difference comes from the direction towards which the disturbance occurs.

Are electromagnetic waves longitudinal? And what about surface waves?

Electromagnetic waves are, in almost all media, transverse waves. Surface waves are transverse waves generated by an earthquake whose source is close to the surface of the earth. There are two types of surface waves, i.e., Rayleigh waves (vertical with respect to the earth’s plane) and Love waves (horizontal with respect to the earth’s plane).

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