# Binding Energy

When an atom's nucleus is made, the particles inside are held together by a strong force. This force is called the nuclear strong force, and it opposes the electromagnetic force that tries to push the particles apart. The energy that's created by this force holding everything together is called binding energy. If you want to separate a particle, you need to use at least the same amount of energy as the binding energy. This is how scientists measure how strong the nuclear strong force is. So binding energy is really important for understanding how atoms work!

## Origin of binding energy

Binding energy exists as part of the interaction between the electromagnetic force and the strong nuclear force. The nuclear force is a short-range, very strong, attractive force that acts between protons and neutrons, and decays very rapidly. There is a distance at which the attraction caused by the strong nuclear force can win over the electromagnetic force, repelling protons. This is the origin of binding energy, as the strong force works against the electromagnetic force, repelling the other positive particles.

The work produced by the strong nuclear force against the electromagnetic force is equal to the binding energy.

## How to calculate binding energy

Binding energy is a type of energy that comes from mass-energy equivalence, which is a principle discovered by Albert Einstein. The principle is expressed as a formula that allows us to calculate the energy stored by the strong nuclear force in the atomic nucleus. This is the binding energy equation:

E = (mf - mi) * c^2

In this equation, mf and mi are the final and initial masses of the particles in kilograms, E is the energy released in joules, and c is the speed of light in a vacuum. Scientists usually measure the mass of particles in atomic mass units, which is the mass of 1/12th of a neutral, unbonded carbon-12 atom. This is equal to 1.6605 ⋅ 10-27kg. Using this equation, we can calculate how much energy is stored in the nucleus of an atom.

### The mass defect

The binding energy of an atom is closely related to the phenomenon of the mass defect. When the components of an atom come together to form a nucleus, the resulting nucleus is slightly less massive than the sum of the masses of its individual components. This difference in mass is known as the mass defect. However, this mass is not lost, but instead, it is converted into energy according to Einstein's famous equation E=mc^2, where E is the energy, m is the mass, and c is the speed of light. This energy is what we refer to as the binding energy, and it is the energy that holds the nucleus together. The greater the binding energy, the more stable the nucleus, and the less likely it is to undergo radioactive decay.

### Binding energy atomic mass dependence

The binding energy of an atom is determined by the total nuclear force in the nucleus, which is primarily governed by the strong nuclear force. The more particles (protons and neutrons) an atom has in its nucleus, the stronger the nuclear force, and therefore the greater the binding energy. This is why heavier elements such as uranium and plutonium have higher binding energies than lighter elements like helium.

As an illustration, let's calculate the difference between the binding energy of uranium-235 and helium. Uranium-235 has a total of 235 particles in its nucleus (92 protons and 143 neutrons), while helium has only four particles (2 protons and 2 neutrons). According to the binding energy equation, we can calculate the energy released when uranium-235 is formed by subtracting the final mass of the uranium-235 nucleus from the sum of the masses of its individual particles, and then multiplying the result by the speed of light squared. We can do the same for helium.

Using experimental data, we find that the mass of uranium-235 is 235.0439 atomic mass units (amu), while the mass of helium is 4.0026 amu. Therefore, the mass defect of uranium-235 is:

(235.0439 amu - 235 amu) x 1.6605 x 10^-27 kg/amu = 6.49 x 10^-25 kg

Similarly, the mass defect of helium is:

(4.0026 amu - 4 amu) x 1.6605 x 10^-27 kg/amu = 6.64 x 10^-29 kg

Using Einstein's equation, we can calculate the energy released by the formation of uranium-235 and helium:

For uranium-235:

E = (6. kg x299/s)^2 = 5.80 x 10^13 J

For helium:

E = (6.64 x 10^-29 kg) x (299792458 m/s)^2 = 5.93 x 10^-12 J

Therefore, we can see that uranium-235 releases a significantly larger amount of energy than helium due to its much larger binding energy.

## Helium

Your statement about the mass of protons and neutrons is correct. The mass of a proton is approximately 1.0073 atomic mass units (amu), while the mass of a neutron is approximately 1.0087 amu. Therefore, the total mass of a helium nucleus, which comprises two neutrons and two protons, can be calculated by adding the individual masses of each particle:

Total mass of helium nucleus = (2 x mass of neutron) + (2 x mass of proton)
= (2 x 1.0087 amu) + (2 x 1.0073 amu)
= 4.002 amu (rounded to three decimal places)

This is the total mass of the helium nucleus when it is in its ground state, i.e., when its components are not bound together. However, when the nucleus is formed, the total mass of the nucleus is found to be slightly less than the sum of the masses of its individual particles. This difference in mass is known as the mass defect, and it is a measure of the binding energy of the nucleus. As we discussed earlier, this mass defect is converted into energy according to Einstein's equation, E = mc^2.

## The binding energy per nucleon graph

In physics, it is helpful to plot the relationship between the binding energy and the atomic mass. This graph is known as the binding energy per nucleon for stable nuclei and gives us the following relevant information:

The amount of energy per nuclei. The force that is dominant in the nucleus. Which nuclear process is more likely to occur (fusion or fission).

You are correct in your observations about the plot of binding energy per nucleon vs. atomic mass number. Heavier nuclei generally have higher binding energies per nucleon and are therefore more stable than lighter nuclei. However, when the atomic mass number becomes very large, the binding energy per nucleon begins to decrease, indicating that the nucleus is becoming less stable. This is because the electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged protons in the nucleus begins to outweigh the strong nuclear force that binds the nucleus together.

As you mentioned, for lighter elements, fusion is more likely to occur. Fusion is the process of combining two lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus, releasing energy in the process. This process is the source of energy for the sun and other stars. In contrast, for heavier elements, fission is more likely to occur. Fission is the process of splitting a heavier nucleus into two lighter nuclei, also releasing energy in the process. This process is used in nuclear power plants to generate electricity.

Both fusion and fission involve the conversion of mass into energy, according to Einstein's famous equation, E = mc^2. However, the conditions required for each process to occur are quite different. Fusion requires extremely high temperatures and pressures to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged nuclei. In contrast, fission requires the nucleus to be bombarded by high-energy particles, such as neutrons, to overcome the strong nuclear force that holds the nucleus together.

### Fission

The breakaway of heavy nuclei such as uranium will release energy in a process known as fission. Elements heavier than iron-56 are prone to fission.

### Fusion

Contrary to heavy elements, lighter elements are prone to fusion. In this case, the principle of mass-energy equivalence intervenes. Because the mass of the particle that is produced is less than its original components, the lost mass should be transformed into energy.

You have summarized the key takeaways regarding binding energy and fusion/fission processes quite well. Binding energy is indeed the work done by the strong nuclear force against the electromagnetic force of repulsion between protons in the atomic nucleus. The calculation of binding energy involves the mass lost when the atom or particle is formed multiplied by the square of the speed of light in a vacuum.

Regarding fusion, you correctly pointed out that it is the process by which lighter elements combine to form heavier ones, releasing energy in the process. The fusion process is what powers the Sun and other stars. Deuterium and tritium, two isotopes of hydrogen, are commonly used in fusion reactions. The energy release from fusion is in the form of photons, which may take thousands of years to escape the star's surface and reach Earth.

On the other hand, fission involves the splitting of a heavier nucleus into two lighter ones, also releasing energy in the process. Fission is used in nuclear power plants to generate electricity. The force that dominates the nucleus determines whether fusion or fission is more likely to occur. For lighter elements, electrostatic forces dominate the nucleus, making fusion more likely. For heavier elements, the strong nuclear force dominates, making fission more likely.

## Binding Energy

What is binding energy?

Binding energy is the product of the work done by the strong nuclear force against the electromagnetic force repelling the protons in the atomic nucleus.

How do you calculate binding energy?

The binding energy can be calculated by multiplying the mass lost when the atom or particle is formed by the square of the light in a vacuum. The equation is E=mc2.

What is the binding energy curve?

The binding energy per nucleon graph gives us information on the amount of energy per nuclei, the force that is dominant in the nucleus, and which nuclear process is more likely to occur (fusion or fission).

Are isotopes with higher binding energy more stable?

Yes, isotopes with higher binding energy are more stable. However, at very large masses, stability decays as the nuclear binding energy decays.

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