Equilibrium constants are called "constants" because they remain the same for a specific reaction at a certain temperature. But if you change the temperature or equation, the value of the equilibrium constant will change too. Don't worry though, you don't need to work out a new value every time. Instead, you can use the properties of the equilibrium constant to figure out the new value.
This article is all about the properties of Keq (that's the equilibrium constant). We'll talk about how it changes with temperature, concentration, and pressure. Then, we'll explore what happens when you reverse a reaction, multiply it by a coefficient, or combine two reactions. After that, we'll show you how to use these properties in real-life situations. Finally, we'll explain why the equilibrium constant is so important. In summary, this article covers everything you need to know about the properties of the equilibrium constant Keq, from how it changes to how to use it in real-life situations.
In our previous article, "Equilibrium Constant," we learned that when a "reversible reaction" is left in a closed system, it will eventually reach a state of "Dynamic Equilibrium." At this point, the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the backward reaction, and the amounts of products and reactants remain constant. We use the equilibrium constant, Keq, to express the ratio between the amounts of products and reactants in such a system.
Keq is a constant value that tells us the relative amounts of reactants and products in a system at equilibrium for a specific reaction at a certain temperature. It doesn't matter how much of the products or reactants you start with, as long as you keep the reaction equation and temperature the same, Keq won't change.
However, if you alter the temperature or reaction equation, Keq will change. The equilibrium constant is affected by changes in temperature or equation, and we'll explore how and why that happens in the following sections.
We'll now explore the properties of the equilibrium constant, Keq, and how it responds to changes in the system's conditions or the reaction equation.
First up, let's look at the effect of changing a system's conditions on the equilibrium constant. We mentioned this in the article "Equilibrium Constant", but we'll remind ourselves of it now. This section will focus on pressure, concentration, the presence of a catalyst and temperature.
It is quite simple, really - the only external condition that affects the equilibrium constant, Keq, is temperature. Changing the pressure or concentration of a system at equilibrium has no effect on the equilibrium constant. Adding a catalyst doesn't change its value either:
Neither increasing nor decreasing the pressure of a system at equilibrium has any effect on the equilibrium constant. Likewise, neither increasing nor decreasing the concentration of a system at equilibrium has any effect on the equilibrium constant. The presence of a catalyst also doesn't affect the equilibrium constant. Changing the temperature of a system at equilibrium does change the equilibrium constant. Increasing the temperature favors the endothermic reaction. If the forward reaction is endothermic, then Keq will increase. Decreasing the temperature favors the exothermic reaction. If the backward reaction is exothermic, then Keq will decrease.
Next, let's look at what happens to the equilibrium constant when you change the reaction equation itself. Remember, the equilibrium constant is only constant for a particular reaction. This means that by changing the reaction equation, we've created a new reaction. This new reaction will have its own unique equilibrium constant. However, the equilibrium constant changes in predictable ways, thanks to certain properties.
We'll first look at what happens when you reverse the reaction equation.
Take the reaction A(g) + B(g) ⇌ C(g) + D(g). If we were to write an equation for Kc for this reaction (which we'll call Kc1), we'd get the following:
Kc1 = [C]eqm [D]eqm[A]eqm [B]eqm
Check out "Equilibrium Constant" to find out how to write the expression for Kc, a particular type of equilibrium constant. There, you'll also learn that although equilibrium constant measurements are always taken at equilibrium, we often don't bother writing out the subscript eqm in the expression- the formula looks a lot more simple if you leave it out. We'll therefore omit eqm for the rest of this article. This turns the expression for Kc1 into the following: Kc1 = [C] [D][A] [B]In addition, you should note that while we've used Kc for these examples, all of the properties that we're about to explore apply to the equilibrium constant Kp too.
Let's consider what would happen if we reversed this reaction. Our old products become our new reactants, and our old reactants become our new products:
C(g) + D(g) ⇌ A(g) + B(g)
This gives us the following expression for Kc2:
Kc2 = [A] [B][C] [D]
Notice something? The expression for Kc2 is the reciprocal of the expression for Kc1. The equilibrium constant of a reaction in one direction is the reciprocal of the equilibrium constant for the same reaction in the reverse direction. Or, simply put: when you reverse a reaction, you take the reciprocal of its equilibrium constant.
Now let's consider what happens if you multiply the reaction equation by a coefficient. We've seen above that for the reaction A(g) + B(g) ⇌ C(g) + D(g), we get the following expression for Kc1:
Kc1 = [C] [D][A] [B]
What if we multiplied the entire equation by three? We'd get the following:
3A(g) + 3B(g) ⇌ 3C(g) + 3D(g)
Note that this equation is still balanced - it is simply three times larger in magnitude than the original. But it means that the expression for Kc changes too:
Kc2 = [C]3 [D]3[A]3 [B]3 Kc2 = ([C] [D][A] [B])3 = (Kc1)3
This is the same as our original expression for Kc, but cubed. Multiplying a balanced chemical equation by a coefficient raises the equilibrium constant to the power of that coefficient. If you times an equation by two, you square Keq. If you times an equation by four, you raise Keq to the power of four.
Last of all, let's explore the effect of adding multiple reactions together. Suppose that the products of the reaction A(g) + B(g) ⇌ C(g) + D(g) then react to form two new products, E(g) and F(g). Here are the two reactions and their expressions for Kc:
A(g) + B(g) ⇌ C(g) + D(g) Kc1 = [C] [D][A] [B]C(g) + D(g) ⇌ E(g) + F(g) Kc2 = [E] [F][C] [D]
We can write this as one overall equation, with its own respective expression for Kc:
A(g) + B(g) ⇌ E(g) + F(g) Kc3 = [E] [F][A] [B]
What can you see? The expression for Kc3 is simply the product of the expressions for Kc1 and Kc2:
[E] [F][A] [B] = [C] [D][A] [B] × [E] [F][C] [D]Kc3 = Kc1 × Kc2
Therefore, we can deduce that the equilibrium constant for the overall reaction made up of two or more reactions is equal to the product of their individual equilibrium constants. In other words, when you add up individual reactions, you multiply their equilibrium constants together.
To help consolidate your learning, we've created a handy table summarizing the properties of the equilibrium constant:
The properties of the equilibrium constant.
Let's now have a go at calculating the equilibrium constant using what we've just learned about its properties.
Use the following information to work out Kc for the reaction 2CO2 + 8H2 ⇌ 2CH4 + 4H2O:
1) CH4 + H2O ⇌ CO + 3H2 Kc1 = 6.52) CO + H2O ⇌ CO2 + H2 Kc2 = 0.12
Well, we have been given two equations. With a bit of manipulation, they can be turned into the desired reaction. First of all, notice that whilst we can see CO in both reaction 1 and reaction 2, it isn't present in the overall reaction. We need to add reactions 1 and 2 together to eliminate CO. Remember that when we add two reactions to each other, we multiply their equilibrium constants together. Therefore, this new reaction's equilibrium constant, Kc3, equals the product of Kc1 and Kc2:
3) CH4 + 2H2O + CO ⇌ CO + CO2 + 4H2 Kc3 = 6.5 × 0.12Overall: 3) CH4 + 2H2O ⇌ CO2 + 4H2 Kc3 = 0.78
Reaction 3 looks a little closer to our desired reaction. However, the reactants and products are on the wrong sides. We, therefore, need to reverse reaction 3. Remember that when we do this, we take the reciprocal of the equilibrium constant:
4) CO2 + 4H2 ⇌ CH4 + 2H2O Kc4 = 10.78 Kc4 = 1.28
We're almost there. The last step is to multiply reaction 4 by two. Remember that this means we need to raise the equilibrium constant to the power of two:
5) 2CO2 + 8H2 ⇌ 2CH4 +4H2O Kc5 = 1.282 Kc5 = 1.64
This is our final answer.
The equilibrium constant (Keq) has many practical uses. We can use it to determine the direction a reaction is traveling in by comparing it to the reaction quotient. We can also estimate how far the reaction will go to completion by looking at the magnitude of Keq. Additionally, we can calculate the relative amounts of species in a system at equilibrium using Keq.
If you want to learn more about the reaction quotient, check out our article "Reaction Quotient" and practice working with it in "Using the Reaction Quotient". In "Magnitude of Equilibrium Constant", you'll see how Keq relates to the extent of the reaction and the position of the equilibrium. And in "Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations", you'll learn how to find equilibrium concentrations using the equilibrium constant.
To summarize, we've covered the properties of Keq, including how it changes with alterations to the system's conditions or reaction equation. We've also discussed how to apply this knowledge to real-life reactions. Remember that Keq is only constant for a particular reaction, and changing the reaction equation changes the value of Keq. Reversing the direction of a reaction takes the reciprocal of Keq, multiplying a reaction by a coefficient raises Keq to the power of the coefficient, and adding two reactions multiplies their respective values of Keq together.
State three properties of equilibrium constant.
The equilibrium constant is constant for a certain reaction at a specific temperature. It isn't affected by changes in pressure or concentration, or the presence of a catalyst. However, it is affected by temperature. If you change the reaction equation, you also change the value of the equilibrium constant - check out this article to find out more.
What kind of property is the equilibrium constant?
The equilibrium constant is a value that tells us the relative amounts of reactants and products in a system at equilibrium.
What are the properties of equilibrium?
At equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the backward reaction and the relative amounts of products and reactants don't change.
What are the features of the equilibrium constant?
The equilibrium constant is unaffected by changes in pressure or concentration, or the presence of a catalyst. However, it is affected by temperature. Changing the reaction equation also changes the equilibrium constant. Reversing the equation takes the reciprocal of Keq, whilst multiplying the reaction by a coefficient raises Keq to the power of that coefficient. On the other hand, adding two reactions to each other multiplies their respective values of Keq together.
What are the characteristics and applications of equilibrium constant?
The equilibrium constant is unaffected by changes in temperature, pressure or the presence of a catalyst, but is affected by temperature. The equilibrium constant also changes when you change the reaction equation, and you can find out how exactly it responds in this article. We can use the equilibrium constant to find out the direction a reaction is travelling, estimate how far a reaction will go to completion, and calculate the relative amounts of species in a system at equilibrium.
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