Have you ever been given a task with a really specific requirement? Like, for instance, at a construction site, where the engineer says you need to use 100 million grains of sand for every batch of cement mixed? You might think you need to sit there and count out every grain of sand, but there's a better way to do things.
To figure out how much sand you need, you can measure the weight of an average grain of sand by weighing 100 of them on a scale. Let's say you find out that each grain of sand weighs 10 milligrams. That means each grain is 1/10th of a milligram. Then you can calculate the total weight of sand you need. In this case, it would be 10 kilograms of sand per batch of cement.
Now, imagine you're a chemist. You face a similar problem every day - you need to know how many atoms you need, but counting them out one by one is impossible. So, you use something called atomic mass to calculate how much they weigh. This helps you figure out the molecular mass by adding up the atomic masses. The units for both measures are atomic mass units.
Atomic mass is defined as the rest mass of an atom, usually expressed in atomic units. Atomic weight is what you would measure for the atomic mass near (or on the surface of) a heavy object. When we do chemistry on Earth, we use atomic weight. But, if we ever do chemistry on other planets or in space, we will use atomic mass. For now, you can use the terms interchangeably.
If you're feeling confused, don't worry. We have articles on our site that can help you understand the basics before we get into calculating. "Moles and Molar Mass" and "Avogadro's Number and the Mole" are both great places to start.
Molar mass is the ratio of the mass of a molecule compared to the unified atomic mass unit. It is calculated by multiplying the atomic mass of each element in the compound by the number of atoms of that element in the compound, and then adding the results together. For example, the molar mass of iron (II) chloride (FeCl2) is calculated by multiplying the atomic mass of iron (56 g/mol) by the number of atoms of iron (1), and then multiplying the atomic mass of chlorine (35.5 g/mol) by the number of atoms of chlorine (2). The result is 127 g/mol. The molar mass of a compound can be found on the periodic table, usually under the name of the element.
Calculating the molar mass of a compound is pretty straightforward, but I won't write it in the form of an equation (yet) because that makes it unnecessarily complicated and scary for most students. I will first give you a list of steps (kind of like an algorithm for a computer) to get to the final molar mass. If you repeat these steps ,you will always be able to calculate the correct molar mass, no matter how complicated your compound is.
Water has the chemical formula H2O which means it has 2 H atoms and 1 O atom. Similarly, amphetamine, an organic compound, has the chemical formula C9H13N meaning it has 9 C, 13 H and 1 N atom.
Let's do this one for the ST(i)UDySmArTeR(a) molecule (hint: look at the figure above). The numbers below the names of the elements are the average atomic masses, but in this case, we only have one of each, so there are no numbers in the compound formula. So in this case: 32.07 g/mol for Sulfur, 204.38 g/mol for Thallium, and so on until we get to 226.03 g/mol for Radium. Do it yourself for water and amphetamine, you will need it in the next step!
Molar mass is a crucial concept in chemistry because it allows us to calculate how many grams of atoms we need instead of counting up atoms one by one. The molar mass of a compound is calculated by adding up the atomic mass of each element in the compound. Multiplying a molar amount (number of atoms in a compound) by their molar mass gives you weight (in grams). Similarly, by dividing a mass (in grams) by the molar mass (in g/mol), you get a molar amount.
For example, StudySmarter-ium has one of each element, so the molar mass of the compound is just the sum of the atomic masses of all the components, which is 1181.37 g/mol. Water, on the other hand, has a molar mass of 18.02 g/mol. This is because there are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom in water, so you need to add up the atomic masses of each element. Amphetamine, a pharmaceutical precursor, has a molar mass of 135.23 g/mol because it consists of 9 carbons, 13 hydrogens, and 1 nitrogen.
There are different types of weights and masses used to describe atoms, such as formula weight, monoisotopic mass, molecular mass, molecular weight, atomic weight, and more. It's important to understand the difference between them. The formula for calculating molar mass for a compound is:
where Ni is the number of i atoms in the formula of the compound and Ar(i) is the atomic weight of the atom i, for all atoms in the formula.
Molar mass is used to convert between grams of a substance and moles of a substance. For instance, if you know that your taste buds require 0.5 mol/L glucose to compensate for your bitter coffee, and your coffee is on average 50 ml in volume, you can multiply the two together to get the number of moles of sugar you need to put into your coffee. You can then use the molar mass of glucose to convert the number of moles into grams.
What is the formula for calculating molar mass?
The formula for calculating the molar mass of any given compound is very simple. You only need to add up the atomic masses of all the atoms composing the molecule to get the molar mass of the compound.
How is molar mass used in some stoichiometric calculations?
Molar mass is usually used in stoichiometric calculations to convert between the units of moles and grams. The chemical reactions are fundamentally dependent on moles but in the lab we prefer to use grams since that is something we can measure with a scale, thus we need a conversion between the two.
Describe the process of calculating the molar mass of Li2S.
The process of calculating the molar mass of Li2S is as simple as adding up the atomic masses of the atoms from which the molecule is built. In this case, this means two lithium and one sulfur atom with atomic masses of 6.94 and 32.07 respectively. Molar mass of Li2S = 2 * 6.94 + 32.07 = 45.95 g/mol
How do you calculate the molar mass of a compound?
You can calculate the molar mass of any given compound relatively easily. You only need to add up the atomic masses of all the atoms composing the molecule to get the molar mass of the compound.
What is an example of Molar Mass Calculation?
An example of Molar Mass Calculation is, for example, the calculation of the molar mass of Li2S. It is done in the following way:The process of calculating the molar mass of Li2S is as simple as adding up the atomic masses of the atoms from which the molecule is built. In this case, this means two lithium and one sulfur atom with atomic masses of 6.94 and 32.07 respectively. Molar mass of Li2S = 2 * 6.94 + 32.07 = 45.95 g/mol
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