Tension force is a commonly observed phenomenon when a rope, string, or cable is stretched by a force. It is also known as the pulling force, stress, or tension, generated when a load is applied to an object or its cross-section.

To gain a better understanding of tension, imagine a body with mass (m) connected to a string, as shown in the diagram below. The gravitational force pulls it towards the ground, but the tension in the string counteracts this force, keeping it suspended.

**Illustration of Tension in a String**

To keep the string in equilibrium, the tension force must be equal to the gravitational force. In a stationary scenario, this can be represented as T = mg.

**Tension in the Presence of Acceleration**

In situations where there is acceleration, the tension equation becomes T = m (g + a), as the force required to balance the weight increases with the added acceleration. If there is acceleration in the opposite direction of the tension force, the equation becomes T = m (g - a).

**Examples of Tension:**

Now, let's explore some examples to demonstrate how tension works.

**Example 1: Tension between Two Particles**

Consider the following diagram with two particles released from rest. What is the tension in the string connecting them?

**Tension between Two Particles Example**

**Solution:** In this scenario, the particle with the greater mass will fall while the one with less mass will rise. Let's label the particle with a mass of 2kg as particle A and the one with a mass of 5kg as particle B.

To calculate the tension force, we need to first find the weight of each particle by multiplying its mass with the gravitational acceleration. Therefore, the weight of particle A is 2g, and the weight of particle B is 5g.

We can now create an equation for each particle's acceleration and tension:

**Particle A:**T - 2g = 2a (Equation 1)**Particle B:**5g - T = 5a (Equation 2)

We can solve these equations simultaneously by adding them to eliminate the variable T:

3g = 7a

Therefore, the acceleration is 3/7 times the gravitational acceleration, and we can substitute this value into any of the equations to calculate the tension force.

**Example 2: Tension on a String with One Particle on a Smooth Surface**

Now, let's consider a situation with two particles - one with a mass of 2kg placed on a smooth table and another with a mass of 20kg suspended over the edge of the table by a pulley that connects both particles.

**Tension on a String with One Particle on a Smooth Surface**

**Solution:** Let's add to the diagram to better visualize the scenario.

**Tension on a String with One Particle on a Smooth Surface**

To simplify, we will refer to the particle with a mass of 2kg as particle A and the one with a mass of 20kg as particle B. Let's resolve particle A horizontally and particle B vertically to determine the tension force:

**Particle A:**T = ma (Equation 1)**Particle B:**mg - T = ma (Equation 2)

By substituting the values, we get:

**Particle A:**T = 2a (Equation 1)**Particle B:**20g - T = 20a (Equation 2)

To solve these equations simultaneously, we can add them to eliminate the variable T, resulting in the following equation:

20g = 22a

Thus, the tension force in the string is 17.8N.

**Tension at an Angle**

In some cases, the tension force can act at an angle. To calculate this, we need to determine the vertical and horizontal components of the tension force. Let's look at an example to understand this better.

**Tension at an Angle**

**Solution:** To solve this example, we need to create two equations - one for the vertical forces and one for the horizontal forces. Hence, our equations are:

**Vertical:**Tsinθ - 2g = 0 (Equation 1)**Horizontal:**Tcosθ = 4.5g (Equation 2)

Since we have two equations and two unknowns, we can use the simultaneous equation method to solve them. By rearranging Equation 2 and substituting into Equation 1, we get:

- Tsinθ - 2g = 0
- Tcosθ = 4.5g (rearranged)

Therefore, we can solve for T:

T = 4.5g / cosθ

As the tension force acts at an angle, we need to consider this angle in our calculations.

**Tension Equation:** T = mg + ma

**What is Tension:** Tension is a force generated in a rope, string, or cable when it is stretched under an applied force.

**How to Calculate Tension:** To determine tension, one must consider and resolve all forces acting on the object, and then solve for the unknown using equations.

If you are dealing with a pendulum string and need to find the tension, the following steps can guide you through the process.

- Firstly, it is important to note that the tension remains constant throughout the string if there is tension in the equilibrium position of the pendulum.
- To calculate tension, you must first determine the angle at which the string is displaced, as this is a crucial factor in finding the tension.
- Using trigonometry, you can resolve the force into its horizontal and vertical components, making it easier to work with.
- Using the appropriate trigonometric functions, you can solve for the force components and then plug them into the equation.
- The equation for finding tension may vary depending on the situation, but it will typically involve Newton's second law of motion, which states that force equals mass times acceleration.
- By solving the equation, you can determine the tension in the string and gain a better understanding of the forces involved.

To summarize, calculating tension in a pendulum string requires considering the equilibrium position, angle of displacement, and using trigonometry and Newton's laws of motion. By following these steps, you can accurately analyze the motion of a pendulum and determine its tension.

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