# Construction and Loci

## The Concept and Construction of Loci in Geometry

The term locus, derived from the Latin word for "location", is an important concept in geometry that refers to a set of points satisfying a specific condition. In two-dimensional plane geometry, loci can be constructed using simple tools like a pencil, ruler, and compass. Let's dive deeper into this topic and understand its application through a practical example.

If we want to build a picket fence around our home, we can choose to place it 6 feet away from the boundary. This layout can be seen as a locus where the fence surrounds the home at a fixed distance of 6 feet.

## A Detailed Explanation of Loci

A locus consists of points that meet a specific condition, with its plural form being loci. In two dimensions, a locus is represented by a curve or a line. Before we explore the construction of different types of loci, let's define another significant term.

If a point A and a set of objects B are equidistant from each other, we say that A is equidistant from B.

## Types of Loci and their Step-by-Step Construction

There are four common types of loci - the circle, the sausage shape, the perpendicular bisector, and the angle bisector. Let's take a closer look at each of these and learn how to construct them.

### The Circle: Constructing Equidistant Points from a Fixed Center

A circle is a locus of points that are equidistant from a fixed point, known as the center. The distance from the center to each point in the set is called the radius.

To construct a circle, you will need a compass, pencil, and ruler. Follow these steps:

• Step 1: Open your compass to the desired radius length.
• Step 2: Place the point of your compass at the center.
• Step 3: Draw an arc around the center until the two ends meet.

For example, if we are given a point A and asked to construct a circle with a 2cm radius around it, we can simply follow the steps above to create a circle surrounding point A.

### The Sausage Shape: Constructing Equidistant Points from a Line Segment

A sausage shape is a locus of points that are equidistant from a line segment, creating a curved track around it. To construct this type of locus, you will need a compass, pencil, and ruler.

• Step 1: Mark the two endpoints of the line segment as A and B.
• Step 2: Open your compass to the desired locus measure and draw an arc from each endpoint A and B, creating a visible curve.
• Step 3: Repeat step 2 from any point along the line segment, forming several arcs above and below the segment.
• Step 4: Use your ruler to join the highest points of each arc.
• Step 5: Tidy up the locus to see the sausage-like shape it forms.

For instance, if we have to construct a line segment AB that is 6cm long and draw a locus of points 3cm away from AB, we can follow the above steps to create a sausage shape around the line segment AB.

## In Conclusion

Loci are crucial in understanding and solving geometry problems. By learning how to construct different types of loci, we can better visualize and create different shapes, making geometry more intriguing and easier to comprehend. With the help of a compass, pencil, and ruler, we can easily construct various types of loci, expanding our knowledge and skills in geometry. So, continue practicing and exploring the world of loci in geometry!

## The Perpendicular Bisector Method in Geometry

The perpendicular bisector is a fundamental tool in geometry used to find equidistant points on a line segment. To construct it, follow these steps:

• Step 1: Draw a line segment connecting two points, A and B.
• Step 2: With A as the center, use a compass to draw two arcs above and below the line segment. Repeat this step with B as the center. This should result in two intersecting points, X and Y, equidistant from A and B.
• Step 3: Connect points X and Y, and the resulting line XY will be the perpendicular bisector of AB.

Let's put this method into practice with an example. Given the rectangle ABCD below, we need to draw a line that splits the side CD into two equal halves. By using the perpendicular bisector method, the line that bisects CD measuring 7 cm, divides it into two equal lengths of 3.5 cm each.

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