## The Concept of Proof by Contradiction

In the world of mathematics, proof by contradiction, also known as the contradiction method, is a distinct type of proof. Unlike other forms of proof, it does not aim to prove a statement to be true, but rather begins by assuming the statement is false and leads to a contradiction. However, this method is only applicable when dealing with statements that can be either true or false, making it a crucial tool in mathematical proofs.

## How to Use Proof by Contradiction

To gain a better understanding of this approach, let's break down the steps for executing a proof by contradiction:

• Step 1: Start by taking the statement and assuming its opposite is true (i.e. assume the statement is false).
• Step 2: From there, construct an argument based on the assumed statement and work towards a conclusion.
• Step 3: As the argument progresses, reach a contradiction which ultimately proves that the alternate statement is false, allowing for the original statement to be true.

While this method may initially seem complex, let's examine some examples to grasp the concept better. It is essential to be familiar with this style of proof, as it may arise in exams or other academic settings.

## Examples of Proof by Contradiction

To further illustrate the concept of proof by contradiction, let's explore some examples of its application.

### Example 1: Proving the Infinity of Prime Numbers

To establish that there is an infinite number of prime numbers, we will use the proof by contradiction method. First, we will assume that the statement is false and that there is a finite number of prime numbers, say n. We can label these primes from 1 to n.

If there is, in fact, an infinite number of prime numbers, then any number should be divisible by at least one of these primes. To demonstrate this, let's construct a number P by multiplying all the prime numbers together and adding 1. This number would be P = (2 x 3 x 5... x n) + 1

It is evident that no prime number will divide P since each of the primes divides P-1. The only number that can divide both P and P-1 is 1, which is not a prime number. This contradiction proves that P is a prime number, and since P is greater than n, there must be more prime numbers than initially assumed, ultimately proving the statement that there is an infinite number of primes.

QED

### Example 2: Proving that √2 is Irrational

Using proof by contradiction, we can demonstrate that √2 is irrational. Let's begin by assuming that √2 is rational and can be written as a/b, where a and b are integers, b ≠ 0, and their greatest common divisor is 1.

This implies that a/b is a fraction in its simplest form. It is important to note that a and b cannot both be even, or else a factor of 2 could be canceled out. If √2 = a/b, then 2 = a²/b², which can be rearranged to a² = 2b². Since a² is even, it follows that a is also even. (We can verify this by writing an even number as 2k and its square as 4k², which is also even, or an odd number as 2k+1 and its square as 4k² + 4k +1, which is odd).

This means that we can replace a with 2c, as it must be even. The value of c is not crucial but must be an integer. So if a² = 2b², then 4c² = 2b² => b² = 2c². Continuing this pattern, b² will also be even, resulting in b being even as well. Thus, we can express b = 2d, where d∈ℤ. This ultimately leads to the greatest common divisor of (a, b) being (2c, 2d), which cannot equal 1 since it would be a minimum of 2. This contradicts our initial assumption that a/b is a fraction in its simplest form, ultimately proving that √2 is irrational.

QED

### Example 3: Proving the Non-existence of a Specific Integer Equation

Lastly, to prove that there are no integers a and b that satisfy the equation 10a + 15b = 1, we will employ the proof by contradiction method. Let's assume that there are integers a and b that fulfill this equation. We can then divide both sides by 5 to get 2a + 3b = 1/5.

In such a scenario, where a and b are integers, it would not be possible for the result of multiplying each by another integer (in this case, 2 and 3, respectively) and then adding them to form a fraction. This fact goes against the conditions set by the equation, ultimately proving that there are no integers a and b that satisfy 10a + 15b = 1.

QED

## Using Proof by Contradiction to Prove the Non-Existence of Certain Integers

Our belief that there may exist integers a and b satisfying a specific equation is disproven when we apply proof by contradiction.

### Example 4: Proving the Irrationality of the Sum of Rational and Irrational Numbers

We can employ proof by contradiction to demonstrate that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is indeed irrational. Let us assume that the sum of a rational number a and an irrational number b is rational. We can then express a = c/d, e/f, where d and f are integers, d ≠ 0, and the fraction is reduced to its simplest form.

Therefore, we can write c/d + b = e/f, implying that c/d + b is also rational. However, this directly contradicts our initial premise that b is irrational, thus proving that the sum of a rational and irrational number can only be irrational.

QED

## A Guide to Understanding Proof by Contradiction

Proof by contradiction is a powerful tool in math that involves proving a statement by assuming its opposite and finding a contradiction. This method is based on the idea that if the converse of a statement is always false, then the statement itself must be true.

## When is Proof by Contradiction Useful?

Proof by contradiction is particularly beneficial when a statement is challenging or impossible to prove directly, but its converse is easier to prove. It is a useful strategy when other proof techniques, such as direct proof or proof by induction, are not applicable.

## The Steps for Utilizing Proof by Contradiction

The process of proof by contradiction is straightforward yet integral in reaching a valid conclusion. First, the statement being proven must have only two potential outcomes. Then, the following steps should be taken:

• Step 1: Assume that the opposite of the statement is true (i.e. assume the statement is false).
• Step 2: Build an argument from this assumption and work towards a conclusion.
• Step 3: During this process, reach a contradiction. This indicates that the opposite statement is false, and therefore, the original statement must be true.

By following these steps, we can effectively prove a statement through contradiction. This approach allows for a deeper understanding and insight into the validity of a statement.