# Prime Factorization

## The Incredible World of Prime Factorisation

Have you ever been fascinated by the special rule that prime numbers follow? This rule states that prime numbers cannot be expressed as the product of two smaller whole numbers, except for 1 and itself. These unique numbers were first discovered in 300 B.C. by the mathematician Euclid of Alexandria in ancient Greece, where he proved that there are infinitely many prime numbers.

In this article, we will delve into the concept of prime factorisation, which revolves around the idea that any whole number can be broken down into a product of prime numbers. We will explore how prime factors act as the "building blocks" of a number and how we can apply this concept to factorise whole numbers into their prime factors. Furthermore, we will also look at some real-life examples where prime factorisation plays a crucial role.

## Understanding Prime Factorisation

Let us first refresh our memory on the definition of prime numbers. A prime number is a whole number that has only two factors: 1 and itself. Some examples of prime numbers include 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, etc. Similarly, a factor of a given whole number is any number that can divide the number without leaving a remainder. So, the factors of a number completely divide it.

With these definitions in mind, let us recall how to find the factors of a number. For instance, the factors of 14 are 1, 2, 7, and 14. Interestingly, 2 and 7 are both prime numbers, leading us to the definition of a prime factor - a factor that is also a prime number. Thus, instead of just finding factors, we can also represent a number as a product of its prime factors, known as prime factorisation. It allows us to break down a number into its prime factors.

Let's look at some examples to better understand prime factorisation:

- 12 = 2 x 2 x 3
- 24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3
- 50 = 2 x 5 x 5

The examples above demonstrate how a number can be expressed in its prime factorisation form, which is a well-organized representation of a number's factors. Now, let's move on to the primary difference between factors and prime factors.

## Factors vs. Prime Factors

The essential difference between factors and prime factors lies in the type of numbers in each form. Factors can be any number that can divide another number without leaving a remainder, including both composite numbers and prime numbers. A composite number has more than two factors, whereas prime factors are factors that are also prime numbers. When we factorise a number, we cannot break down its factored form into smaller numbers, as it is no longer a composite number.

## Methods of Prime Factorisation

There are two methods to determine the prime factorisation of a number - the division method and the factor tree method. Let's explore each technique and some examples to grasp them.

## Division Method

The division method involves four simple steps:

- Divide the given number by the smallest prime number that can divide it completely.
- Divide the quotient from Step 1 by the smallest prime number again.
- Repeat Step 2 until the quotient equals 1.
- Multiply all the resulting prime factors.

Let's consider an example using the division method:

Find the prime factorisation of 56 using the division method.

**Solution:**

Step 1: 56 ÷ 2 = 28

Step 2: 28 ÷ 2 = 14

Step 3: 14 ÷ 2 = 7

Step 4: 2 x 2 x 2 x 7 = 56

The prime factorisation of 56 is 2 x 2 x 2 x 7.

The table below provides a clearer format of the above steps:

NumberDivisor (smallest prime number)Quotient56228282141427721

The resulting prime factors are 2, 2, 2, and 7, which are also the divisors and quotients from the above steps.

Now that we have a better understanding of prime factorisation, we can use this concept to solve more complex problems and real-world applications. Prime factorisation is a powerful tool that helps us break down numbers into smaller, more manageable parts, making it easier to comprehend and utilize in various mathematical scenarios.

Next time you encounter a large number, try discovering its prime factors - you may uncover some interesting connections and patterns!

## The Division Method for Prime Factorisation

Prime factorisation is the process of breaking down a number into its smallest prime factors. One method for doing this is the division method, which involves repeatedly dividing the number by its least prime factors.

To find the prime factorisation of 56 using the division method, follow these steps:

- Begin by dividing 56 by its least prime factor, which is 2. This gives a quotient of 28.
- Divide the quotient, 28, by its least prime factor again. This results in a quotient of 14.
- Divide the quotient, 14, by its least prime factor once more. This gives a quotient of 7.
- Since the quotient, 7, is a prime number, divide it by itself to obtain a quotient of 1.

This process can also be represented visually using a grid, as illustrated below:

**Division method for 56:**StepNumberQuotientPrime Factor15628222814231472471N/A

Therefore, the prime factorisation of 56 is 56 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 7 = 23 x 7. The prime factors of 56 are 2 and 7.

## Using the Factor Tree Method to Find Prime Factorisation

Another method for finding prime factorisation is the factor tree method, which involves creating a tree-like structure with the given number and its factors. Here's how it works:

- Begin by writing the number at the top of the factor tree.
- Express the number as a product of two factors branching out of the tree.
- Further branch out each of these factors as a product of two more factors.
- Repeat step 3 until the factors can no longer be broken down, at which point they should be identified as prime factors.
- Finally, write the given number as a composite of its prime factors in exponent form.

For example, to find the prime factorisation of 72 using the factor tree method, follow these steps:

- Start by writing 72 at the top of the factor tree.
- Express 72 as a product of two factors, such as 2 and 36.
- Branch out 36 as a product of 2 and 18.
- Continue branching out until reaching prime numbers, as shown in the factor tree below:

**Factor tree method for 72:**StepNumber17222 x 3632 x 2 x 1842 x 2 x 2 x 952 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 4.562 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2

Therefore, the prime factorisation of 72 is 72 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 = 23 x 32. The prime factors of 72 are 2 and 3.

To find the prime factorisation of 125 using the factor tree method, follow these same steps:

- Begin by writing 125 at the top of the factor tree.
- Express 125 as a product of two factors, such as 5 and 25.
- Branch out 25 as a product of 5 and 5.
- Since both of these factors are prime, the factor tree can be stopped at this point, as shown below:

**Factor tree method for 125:**StepNumber112525 x 2535 x 5

Therefore, the prime factorisation of 125 is 125 = 5 x 5 x 5 = 53. The only prime factor of 125 is 5.

## Practical Applications of Prime Factorisation

Prime factorisation has a wide range of practical applications, some of which are discussed below.

### Finding the Highest Common Factor (HCF)

One practical use of prime factorisation is finding the highest common factor (HCF) of two numbers. This can be done by identifying the common prime factors and multiplying the smallest power of each prime factor.

For example, let's find the HCF of 60 and 96 using prime factorisation:

NumberPrime Factorisation6060 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 = 22 x 3 x 59696 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 = 25 x 3

The common prime factors here are 2 and 3. To find the HCF, multiply the lowest power of each common prime factor, which gives an HCF of 2 x 3 = 6.

## How to Find the Highest Common Factor (HCF) and Lowest Common Multiple (LCM)

Prime factorisation is a useful tool for finding the HCF and LCM of two numbers. This process involves breaking down a number into its prime factors, which are numbers only divisible by themselves and 1. Let's explore how we can use prime factorisation to find the HCF and LCM in more detail.

- Example: Find the HCF of 60 and 96.

To find the HCF, we need to determine the prime factorisation of the given numbers. This can be done using the division method.

- Prime factorisation of 60:
- Division method for 60:
- 60 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5

The prime factors of 60 are 2, 3, and 5.

- Prime factorisation of 96:
- Division method for 96:
- 96 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3

The prime factors of 96 are 2 and 3.

The HCF is the product of the smallest power of each common prime factor. In this case, the only common prime factor between 60 and 96 is 2, and the smallest power is 1. Therefore, the HCF(60, 96) = 2 x 3 = 6. So the highest common factor between 60 and 96 is 6.

## Finding the Lowest Common Multiple (LCM)

In addition to finding the HCF, the prime factorisation method can also help us determine the LCM of two numbers. The LCM is the smallest number that is divisible by both numbers. To find the LCM, we use a similar process to the HCF method but with a different approach. Let's take a look at an example to better understand this concept.

- Example: Find the LCM of 20 and 36.

To find the LCM, we need to determine the prime factorisation of both numbers using the division method.

- Prime factorisation of 20:
- Division method for 20:
- 20 = 2 x 2 x 5

The prime factors of 20 are 2 and 5.

- Prime factorisation of 36:
- Division method for 36:
- 36 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 3

The prime factors of 36 are 2 and 3.

The LCM is the product of the greatest power of each common prime factor. In this case, the only common prime factor between 20 and 36 is 2, and the greatest power is 2. Therefore, the LCM(20, 36) = 22 = 4. This means that the lowest common multiple between 20 and 36 is 4.

## Finding the Number of Factors

Another use for prime factorisation is determining the number of factors of a given number. This can be done using both the factor tree method and the division method. Let's look at an example using the factor tree method.

- Example: Find the number of factors for the number 24.

To find the number of factors, we follow these steps:

- Find the prime factorisation of the given number using the factor tree method (or division method).
- Write this product of primes in exponent form.
- Add 1 to each exponent.
- Multiply the numbers found in Step 3. The result will yield the number of factors of the given number.

Using the factor tree method, the prime factorisation of 24 is 24 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 3. This can be written in exponent form as 24 = 23 x 31. Adding 1 to each exponent gives us a total of 4 factors. Therefore, the number 24 has 4 factors.

## Worked Examples

Let's take a look at a few more examples using both the division method and the factor tree method to better understand prime factorisation.

- Example 1: Find the prime factorisation of 70.

Using the division method, we get 70 = 2 x 5 x 7. Using the factor tree method, we get 70 = 2 x 5 x 7. As you can see, both methods yield the same result.

- Example 2: Find the prime factorisation of 112.

Using the division method, we get 112 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 7. Using the factor tree method, we get 112 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 7. Again, both methods give us the same result.

## Key Takeaways

In summary, prime factorisation is a useful method for finding the HCF and LCM of two numbers. It can also be used to determine the number of factors of a given number. It involves breaking down a number into its prime factors and then using the smallest or greatest powers of the common prime factors to find the HCF or LCM. This method can be performed using both the division method and the factor tree method.

## The Significance and Techniques of Prime Factorisation

Prime factorisation is an essential aspect of mathematics that involves breaking down a whole number into a product of its prime factors. This method has numerous uses, including determining the highest common factor, the lowest common multiple, and the total number of factors of a given number.

## What Exactly is Prime Factorisation?

Prime factorisation is the process of representing a whole number as a multiplication of its prime factors. This method simplifies complex numbers by breaking them down into their fundamental building blocks, making it easier to manipulate them in mathematical operations.

## The Two Approaches to Prime Factorisation

There are two distinct methods for determining the prime factorisation of a number. The first is the division method, where the number is divided by its prime factors until only prime numbers remain. The other approach is the use of a factor tree, where the number is continuously broken down until only prime factors are left.

## Practical Applications of Prime Factorisation

Prime factorisation has several practical uses, including finding the highest common factor (HCF) and the lowest common multiple (LCM) of two numbers. It is also helpful in determining the total number of factors of a given number, which is crucial in solving mathematical problems.

## Examples of Prime Factorisation

For instance, the prime factorisation of 56 is 56 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 7 = 23 x 7. Similarly, the prime factorisation of 999 is 999 = 3 x 3 x 3 x 37 = 33 x 37.

## No Fixed Rules for Prime Factorisation

Although there are no set laws for prime factorisation, it is a powerful technique that provides a clear understanding of a number's factors. Its simplicity and effectiveness make it an invaluable tool in solving mathematical problems.