Pulmonary Regurgitation

Pulmonary Regurgitation

Pathology:                    Incompetent pulmonary valveallowing backflow of blood into right ventricle


Aetiology:                     Pulmonary hypertension,infective endocarditis, carcinoid, post pulmonary valve

Surgery, connective tissue disease, Tetralogyof Fallot


Symptoms:                  Usuallyasymptomatic or symptoms of right heart failure


Signs:                              Rightventricular heave, raised JVP, Loud and delayed P2 heart sound. Graham Steellmurmur


Investigations:          ECG: Right ventricular hypertrophy andright bundle branch block

                            Chest X-Ray: Large pulmonary trunk

Echo: Enlarged right ventricle with reducedfunction, may show tricuspid regurgitation


Treatment:                  Medical: Salt restriction and treat pulmonary hypertension

Surgical: Valvereplacement or percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation

Complications:          Heart failure, valve failure, infectiveendocarditis and thromboembolic events


Prognosis:                  Surgery improves outcome

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