Other Lung Conditions

Other Lung Conditions

ObstructiveSleep Apnoea (OSA)


Pathology:                   Episodes ofapnoea during sleep caused by collapse/obstruction of the pharyngeal airways,terminated by partial waking resulting in fragmented sleep


Aetiology:                     Mostcommonly seen in overweight, middle-aged men and is made worse by alcohol.Upper airways abnormalities e.g. large tonsils, can sometimes be the cause


Symptoms:                   Daytimesleepiness, morning headaches, disturbed sleep, decreased libido, partners willreport snoring and apnoea


Signs:                               Overweight


Investigations:          EpworthSleep Scale is a questionnaire designed to measure daytime sleepiness. Overnightpulse oximetry will show frequent desaturations which resolve on waking. Sleepstudies may be needed if overnight oximetry not diagnostic.


Treatment:                  Reduce weight and avoid alcohol, continuous positive airways pressure(CPAP)

Surgeryis sometimes used to correct upper airways abnormalities


Complications:          Pulmonaryhypertension leading to cor pulmonale, hypertension, type 2 respiratory failure


Prognosis:                    Dependenton development of vascular complications, can resolve if sufficient weight loss


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