Pathology: Osteoporosis is a common condition characterized by low bone mass leading to an increased risk of fractures due to an imbalance between the rate of bone resorption and formation.
Symptoms: Osteoporosis is usually asymptomatic until a fracture occurs.
Investigations: Bloods: Blood tests to measure calcium, phosphate, and ALP levels are typically returned as normal.
Imaging: A chest X-ray may indicate the presence of wedge fractures in vertebrae, while DEXA Scanning allows for the assessment of bone mineral density by calculating a T Score which compares an individual's bone density to their peers.
Treatment: Conservative:Conservative treatment options include exercise, ceasing smoking, and an improved diet.
Medical: Medical interventions, such as calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates, oestrogen, and calcitonin may also be prescribed.
Complications: Fractures are the chief complication of osteoporosis.
Prognosis: Early detection of osteoporosis is associated with a good prognosis.
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