Lung Tumours

Lung Tumours

Lung Tumours


Pathology:                    Neoplasticgrowth in the respiratory tract

Bronchialcarcinoma accounts for 95% of all primary cancers of the lung, with alveolar cellcarcinoma accounting for 2%.

Histologycan be split into non-small cell and small cell


Aetiology:                     Smokingis the largest causative factor. Other factors include occupational exposuresto substances such as asbestos


Text Box: Types Of Bronchial Carcinoma
Small Cell (30%)
ADH secreted produces dilutional Hyponatraemia
CTH-like peptide produces Cushing’s Symptoms (pigmentation, proximal myopathy)

Non-Small Cell
Squamous cell (40%)
-	PTH-like peptide produces hypercalcaemia
Adenocarcinoma (10%)















Symptoms:                   Cough,haemoptysis, chest pain, lethargy, weight loss, dyspnoea, hoarse voice (due toinvolvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve)


Signs:                              Mayhave no signs, supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, unilateral pleural effusion


Investigations:          Chest X-Ray: Lesion/mass, pleuraleffusion and/or signs of lobar collapse

CT Chest: Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM) Staging

Biopsy: Bronchoscopy if endobronchial lesion. CTguided biopsy.


Treatment:                  Limited, curable disease: surgicalresection, radical radiotherapy or combination

Non-curable disease (most common): systemic treatment withchemotherapy, localised treatment with radiotherapy for local diseasecontrol/symptomatic relief, palliative care input for symptom control andsupport


Complications:          Invasion of local structures: e.g.nerves, bones, blood vessels, occlusion of bronchus

Metastatic spread: can metastasize to any site


Prognosis:                   Dependent of typeand stage of lung cancer but overall prognosis is poor

Text Box: Common Metastatic Sites Mnemonic:
Lymph Nodes







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