Pathology: Autoimmunecondition in which anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies bindto alpha-3 chains of type IV collagen found in alveolar and glomerular basementmembranes causing glomerulonephritis and pneumonitis
Aetiology: Unknown aetiology but occurs following viral infection
Symptoms: Haemoptysis,shortness of breath, lethargy, nausea, dry cough, peripheral oedema
Signs: Hypertension, microscopic haematuria,proteinuria, haemoptysis
Investigations: Bloods: FBC and anti-GBM antibodies
Chest X-Ray: To assess for pulmonaryhaemhorrhage or infection
Biopsy:Renal or lungbiopsy is diagnostic; renal biopsy shows cresenteric
Treatment: Medical: Plasma exchange – to remove antibodies and Immunosuppression:
Complications: End stage renal failure, pulmonary haemorrhage,infections secondary to the immunosuppressive treatment can also be lifethreatening.
Prognosis: Depends on the initial renal function and extent of lung involvement andspeed of appropriate treatment so prompt diagnosis is key.
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