Pathology: Salmonella typhi, salmonella paratyphiA, B and C, as well as some non-typhoidal salmonella infections, have an incubation period of 10-20 days.
Aetiology: Typhoid is transmitted via faeco-oral transmission via food or water.
Signs: Rosespots (between navel and nipples).
Investigations: Bloods: FBC, U&E
Treatment: Medical: Antibiotics are prescribed based on local sensitivities and may be supplemented with steroids for severe toxaemia.
Complications: Intestinal haemorrhage, pneumonia, bowel perforation, encephalitis, and chronic carriage are potential complications.
Prognosis: Generally excellent with treatment; however, death may occur in up to 20% of cases with untreated typhoid. Additionally, long-term neuropsychiatric symptoms have been linked to typhoid fever.
Figure 9.7 Rose spotsin patient with typhoid
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