Clostridium botulinum is a Gram positive rod, which produces a heat-resistant neurotoxin causing neuromuscular blockade.
The main causes of Clostridium botulinum infection are improperly preserved food and contaminated heroin in intravenous drug users (IVDU).
Paralysis tends to affect the cranial nerves first, leading to diplopia.
If left untreated, Clostridium botulinum can eventually lead to respiratory depression and death.
Microbiology investigations for Clostridium botulinum include stool culture.
The prognosis of Clostridium botulinum is poor, with a mortality rate of up to 50%.
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