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Antibiotics may be either bactericidal, meaning they are capable of killing bacteria, or bacteriostatic, meaning they can effectively prevent bacterial multiplication. Broad spectrum antibiotics cover several types of bacteria while narrow spectrum antibiotics are designed to target fewer types. It should be noted that resistance to common antibiotics is increasing, so they should be used carefully.


Penicillins - Bactericidal and used to treat staphylococci and streptococci, they interfere with bacterial cell wall synthesis. Examples of penicillins include benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and flucloxacillin.

Cephalosporins - Bactericidal and with a greater breadth of scope than penicillins, they belong to four generations of antibiotics which include cephalexin, cefazolin, cefadroxil, cephapirin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, and cefpirome.


Macrolides - Bacteriostatic, macrolides are used to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis and serve as an alternate for those with penicillin allergies. Examples include azithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin.


Fluoroquinolones - Broad spectrum and bactericidal, they inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase. Featuring good oral bioavailability, they are used to treat urinary tract infections, skin infections, and respiratory infections. Examples of fluoroquinolones are ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin.


Tetracyclines - Bacteriostatic and used to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis, tetracyclines are utilized for malaria prophylaxis, skin conditions, typhus, and other applications. Examples of tetracyclines include doxycycline, tetracycline, lymecycline, and minocycline.


Aminoglycosides - Bactericidal and used to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis, aminoglycosides mainly treat gram negative bacteria. Examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, vancomycin, amikacin, streptomycin, and tobramycin.


When it comes to vaccinations, there are a variety of immunizations that need to be given to individuals, depending on their age, risk factors, and other important factors. A few of the categories of immunizations include DTaP, which is diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, Hib, or Haemophilus influenzae type B, MMR, or measles, mumps, and rubella, BCG, or Bacille Calmette-Guerin, PCV, or Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine, and PPV, or Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine.

Inactivated Vaccines:

  • Toxoid
  • Polysaccharide & Conjugate
  • Protein Subunit

The following vaccinations are included under the categories of inactivated vaccines: Pertussis, BCG, Tetanus, Hib, Hep B, Rabies, MMR, Diphtheria, Meningococcal, Influenza, Yellow Fever, Pneumococcal, Hep A, Typhoid, Cholera, Varicella Zoster, and Polio.

Live Attenuated Vaccines: Rotavirus and Bubonic Plague

Age Immunisation & Neonates at Risk:

  • Neonates at Risk: BCG
  • 2 months: DTaP, Polio and Hib 1st dose (5 in 1 vaccine), PCV 1st dose, Meningococcal B 1st dose, Rotavirus 1st dose
  • 3 months: DTaP, Polio.

Vaccination Schedule For Children And Elderly

Vaccinations are important at every age, and while the recommended schedule for children and the elderly may differ, there are numerous vaccines which are necessary. Here is an overview of the recommended vaccination schedule for both children and adults.

  • Children

At 4 months, the recommended vaccine is the 2nd dose of Rotavirus, as well as the 3rd dose of DTaP, Polio, and Hib.

At 4 months as well, the 2nd dose of Meningococcal B should also be taken. Additionally, the 2nd dose of PCV should be taken.

At 12 months, Hib's 4th dose and the 1st dose of Men C should be both taken simultaneously, followed by the MMR and the 3rd dose of PCV. The 3rd dose of Meningococcal B should also be taken.

Between the ages of 2 and 7, the child should receive an annual flu vaccine.

At 3 years and 4 months, the 2nd dose of MMR and the 4-in-1 Pre-School Booster (DTaP and Polio) should be taken.

At 12-13 years for girls only, the HPV (2 doses, 6-12 months apart) should be taken.

At 14 years, the combined dose of Diphtheria (low dose), Tetanus, and Polio (3-in-1 teenage booster), as well as Meningococcal A, C, W, and Y should be taken.

  • Elderly

At 65 years of age, the PPV (Pneumonia) vaccine should be taken, as well as an annual flu vaccine for those aged 65 and over.

At 70 years of age, the Varicella Zoster Vaccine for Shingles should be taken.

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