Anatomy
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Hyoglossus

Hyoglossus

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The Hyoglossus Muscle

The hyoglossus muscle is an extrinsic muscle of the tongue that is located deep in the floor of the oral cavity, located just to the side of the geniohyoid muscle.

Attachments

The hyoglossus muscle arises from the hyoid bone and inserts on the lateral aspect of the tongue.

Function

The primary function of the hyoglossus muscle is to depress and retract the tongue.

Innervation

The hyoglossus muscle is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve.

Blood Supply

The primary source of blood supply to the hyoglossus muscle is the lingual artery, with additional contributions from the tonsillar artery.

Development and Anatomical Variations

The hyoglossus muscle is one of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue that develops from myoblasts of the third pharyngeal arch and is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. It is located within the submandibular triangle of the neck and is anterior to the digastric muscle.

Anatomical variations of the hyoglossus muscle may exist. These variations depend on the extent of the development of the hyoglossus muscle in each individual. In some individuals, the hyoglossus muscle may be reduced in size or even absent.

Clinical Significance

The hyoglossus muscle plays an important role in functions associated with the tongue, such as speech production, swallowing, and mastication. Dysfunction of this muscle can lead to difficulty producing certain sounds, poor control of the tongue, and difficulty swallowing.

Dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle may be associated with a number of different conditions such as craniofacial anomalies, trauma, or tumors of the tongue or oral cavity. Damage to the hypoglossal nerve, which innervates the hyoglossus muscle, can also lead to dysfunction of the muscle.

Damage or dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle can also lead to deviations in the tongue’s position at rest. A deviation in the position of the tongue can lead to various speech impairments, difficulty in articulating words, and difficulty in swallowing. Dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle can also lead to ineffective projection of the tongue while eating, which can impair mastication and proper formation of the bolus.

In order to diagnose and treat conditions associated with dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle, a thorough physical examination to assess the muscle's function is necessary. The examiner should evaluate the function of the hyoglossus muscle in various tasks such as speech production, swallowing, and mastication. In addition, imaging studies, such as an MRI, complete blood work, and a neurologic examination may also be necessary to diagnose the cause of the dysfunction.

Treatment for conditions associated with dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle may include medications, physiotherapy, and/or surgical intervention. If medications are prescribed, they may be used to reduce inflammation, improve muscle function, or decrease spasms. Physiotherapy may be utilized to help strengthen the hyoglossus muscle and improve its function. Surgery may be necessary in some cases to treat tumors or other conditions associated with dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle.

Conclusion

The hyoglossus muscle is an extrinsic muscle of the tongue that is located deep in the floor of the oral cavity. It plays an important role in functions associated with the tongue, such as speech production, swallowing, and mastication. Dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle can lead to various speech impairments, difficulty in articulating words, and difficulty in swallowing. In order to diagnose and treat conditions associated with dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle, a thorough physical examination to assess the muscle's function is necessary. Treatment for conditions associated with dysfunction of the hyoglossus muscle may include medications, physiotherapy, and/or surgical intervention.

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