Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

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The Female Reproductive Tract

The female reproductive tract is located entirely within the pelvis, consisting of the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. These organs are supported in their respective positions by ligaments. Let's take a closer look at each part of the female reproductive system.

The Vulva

Referred to as the external female genitalia, the vulva contains several anatomical features including the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, vestibule, Bartholin's glands and clitoris.

The Vagina

The vagina is a distensible muscular tube which connects the uterus and cervix to the external vaginal orifice. In relation to other parts of the body, it is situated posteriorly to the bladder and urethra, and anteriorly to the rectum and anal canal. The primary functions of the vagina include sexual intercourse, childbirth and menstruation.

The Cervix

The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus, situated just superior to the vagina. It has two openings, known as cervical os, which allow for the passage of sperm while keeping the area of the upper reproductive system free of bacteria.

The Uterus

Commonly referred to as the womb, the uterus is where a fertilized egg is implanted. It is surrounded by a variety of ligaments and can assume a range of positions within the pelvis, known as degree of anteversion or retroversion, and anteflexion or retroflexion.

The Fallopian Tubes

The fallopian tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus and are responsible for transporting the egg to the uterus. The fallopian tubes are divided into four sections including the fimbriae, infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus.

The Ovaries

The ovaries are the two female gonads and the site of gametogenesis. They are situated laterally to the uterus and close to the fimbriae of the fallopian tubes.


The female reproductive tract contains numerous ligaments which provide support to the organs within the female reproductive system, but also serve as pathways for neurovascular structures to reach them.

As you can see, the female reproductive system consists of many complex components. Understanding the anatomy and function of each will help to ensure that the reproductive system works smoothly and without any issues.

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